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function wp_insert_user( $userdata ) {
  global $wpdb;

  if ( $userdata instanceof stdClass ) {
    $userdata = get_object_vars( $userdata );
  } elseif ( $userdata instanceof WP_User ) {
    $userdata = $userdata->to_array();
  }

  // Are we updating or creating?
  if ( ! empty( $userdata['ID'] ) ) {
    $user_id       = (int) $userdata['ID'];
    $update        = true;
    $old_user_data = get_userdata( $user_id );

    if ( ! $old_user_data ) {
      return new WP_Error( 'invalid_user_id', __( 'Invalid user ID.' ) );
    }

    // Hashed in wp_update_user(), plaintext if called directly.
    $user_pass = ! empty( $userdata['user_pass'] ) ? $userdata['user_pass'] : $old_user_data->user_pass;
  } else {
    $update = false;
    // Hash the password.
    $user_pass = wp_hash_password( $userdata['user_pass'] );
  }

  $sanitized_user_login = sanitize_user( $userdata['user_login'], true );

  
/**
 * Filters a username after it has been sanitized.
 *
 * This filter is called before the user is created or updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.3
 *
 * @param string $sanitized_user_login Username after it has been sanitized.
 */
  $pre_user_login = apply_filters( 'pre_user_login', $sanitized_user_login );

  // Remove any non-printable chars from the login string to see if we have ended up with an empty username.
  $user_login = trim( $pre_user_login );

  // user_login must be between 0 and 60 characters.
  if ( empty( $user_login ) ) {
    return new WP_Error( 'empty_user_login', __( 'Cannot create a user with an empty login name.' ) );
  } elseif ( mb_strlen( $user_login ) > 60 ) {
    return new WP_Error( 'user_login_too_long', __( 'Username may not be longer than 60 characters.' ) );
  }

  if ( ! $update && username_exists( $user_login ) ) {
    return new WP_Error( 'existing_user_login', __( 'Sorry, that username already exists!' ) );
  }

  
/**
 * Filters the list of disallowed usernames.
 *
 * @since 4.4.0
 *
 * @param array $usernames Array of disallowed usernames.
 */
  $illegal_logins = (array) apply_filters( 'illegal_user_logins', array() );

  if ( in_array( strtolower( $user_login ), array_map( 'strtolower', $illegal_logins ), true ) ) {
    return new WP_Error( 'invalid_username', __( 'Sorry, that username is not allowed.' ) );
  }

  /*
	 * If a nicename is provided, remove unsafe user characters before using it.
	 * Otherwise build a nicename from the user_login.
	 */
  if ( ! empty( $userdata['user_nicename'] ) ) {
    $user_nicename = sanitize_user( $userdata['user_nicename'], true );
  } else {
    $user_nicename = mb_substr( $user_login, 0, 50 );
  }

  $user_nicename = sanitize_title( $user_nicename );

  
/**
 * Filters a user's nicename before the user is created or updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.3
 *
 * @param string $user_nicename The user's nicename.
 */
  $user_nicename = apply_filters( 'pre_user_nicename', $user_nicename );

  if ( mb_strlen( $user_nicename ) > 50 ) {
    return new WP_Error( 'user_nicename_too_long', __( 'Nicename may not be longer than 50 characters.' ) );
  }

  $user_nicename_check = $wpdb->get_var( $wpdb->prepare( "SELECT ID FROM $wpdb->users WHERE user_nicename = %s AND user_login != %s LIMIT 1", $user_nicename, $user_login ) );

  if ( $user_nicename_check ) {
    $suffix = 2;
    while ( $user_nicename_check ) {
      // user_nicename allows 50 chars. Subtract one for a hyphen, plus the length of the suffix.
      $base_length         = 49 - mb_strlen( $suffix );
      $alt_user_nicename   = mb_substr( $user_nicename, 0, $base_length ) . "-$suffix";
      $user_nicename_check = $wpdb->get_var( $wpdb->prepare( "SELECT ID FROM $wpdb->users WHERE user_nicename = %s AND user_login != %s LIMIT 1", $alt_user_nicename, $user_login ) );
      $suffix++;
    }
    $user_nicename = $alt_user_nicename;
  }

  $raw_user_email = empty( $userdata['user_email'] ) ? '' : $userdata['user_email'];

  
/**
 * Filters a user's email before the user is created or updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.3
 *
 * @param string $raw_user_email The user's email.
 */
  $user_email = apply_filters( 'pre_user_email', $raw_user_email );

  /*
	 * If there is no update, just check for `email_exists`. If there is an update,
	 * check if current email and new email are the same, and check `email_exists`
	 * accordingly.
	 */
  if ( ( ! $update || ( ! empty( $old_user_data ) && 0 !== strcasecmp( $user_email, $old_user_data->user_email ) ) )
    && ! defined( 'WP_IMPORTING' )
    && email_exists( $user_email )
  ) {
    return new WP_Error( 'existing_user_email', __( 'Sorry, that email address is already used!' ) );
  }

  $raw_user_url = empty( $userdata['user_url'] ) ? '' : $userdata['user_url'];

  
/**
 * Filters a user's URL before the user is created or updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.3
 *
 * @param string $raw_user_url The user's URL.
 */
  $user_url = apply_filters( 'pre_user_url', $raw_user_url );

  if ( mb_strlen( $user_url ) > 100 ) {
    return new WP_Error( 'user_url_too_long', __( 'User URL may not be longer than 100 characters.' ) );
  }

  $user_registered = empty( $userdata['user_registered'] ) ? gmdate( 'Y-m-d H:i:s' ) : $userdata['user_registered'];

  $user_activation_key = empty( $userdata['user_activation_key'] ) ? '' : $userdata['user_activation_key'];

  if ( ! empty( $userdata['spam'] ) && ! is_multisite() ) {
    return new WP_Error( 'no_spam', __( 'Sorry, marking a user as spam is only supported on Multisite.' ) );
  }

  $spam = empty( $userdata['spam'] ) ? 0 : (bool) $userdata['spam'];

  // Store values to save in user meta.
  $meta = array();

  $nickname = empty( $userdata['nickname'] ) ? $user_login : $userdata['nickname'];

  
/**
 * Filters a user's nickname before the user is created or updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.3
 *
 * @param string $nickname The user's nickname.
 */
  $meta['nickname'] = apply_filters( 'pre_user_nickname', $nickname );

  $first_name = empty( $userdata['first_name'] ) ? '' : $userdata['first_name'];

  
/**
 * Filters a user's first name before the user is created or updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.3
 *
 * @param string $first_name The user's first name.
 */
  $meta['first_name'] = apply_filters( 'pre_user_first_name', $first_name );

  $last_name = empty( $userdata['last_name'] ) ? '' : $userdata['last_name'];

  
/**
 * Filters a user's last name before the user is created or updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.3
 *
 * @param string $last_name The user's last name.
 */
  $meta['last_name'] = apply_filters( 'pre_user_last_name', $last_name );

  if ( empty( $userdata['display_name'] ) ) {
    if ( $update ) {
      $display_name = $user_login;
    } elseif ( $meta['first_name'] && $meta['last_name'] ) {
      $display_name = sprintf(
        /* translators: 1: User's first name, 2: Last name. */
        _x( '%1$s %2$s', 'Display name based on first name and last name' ),
        $meta['first_name'],
        $meta['last_name']
      );
    } elseif ( $meta['first_name'] ) {
      $display_name = $meta['first_name'];
    } elseif ( $meta['last_name'] ) {
      $display_name = $meta['last_name'];
    } else {
      $display_name = $user_login;
    }
  } else {
    $display_name = $userdata['display_name'];
  }

  
/**
 * Filters a user's display name before the user is created or updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.3
 *
 * @param string $display_name The user's display name.
 */
  $display_name = apply_filters( 'pre_user_display_name', $display_name );

  $description = empty( $userdata['description'] ) ? '' : $userdata['description'];

  
/**
 * Filters a user's description before the user is created or updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.3
 *
 * @param string $description The user's description.
 */
  $meta['description'] = apply_filters( 'pre_user_description', $description );

  $meta['rich_editing'] = empty( $userdata['rich_editing'] ) ? 'true' : $userdata['rich_editing'];

  $meta['syntax_highlighting'] = empty( $userdata['syntax_highlighting'] ) ? 'true' : $userdata['syntax_highlighting'];

  $meta['comment_shortcuts'] = empty( $userdata['comment_shortcuts'] ) || 'false' === $userdata['comment_shortcuts'] ? 'false' : 'true';

  $admin_color         = empty( $userdata['admin_color'] ) ? 'fresh' : $userdata['admin_color'];
  $meta['admin_color'] = preg_replace( '|[^a-z0-9 _.\-@]|i', '', $admin_color );

  $meta['use_ssl'] = empty( $userdata['use_ssl'] ) ? 0 : (bool) $userdata['use_ssl'];

  $meta['show_admin_bar_front'] = empty( $userdata['show_admin_bar_front'] ) ? 'true' : $userdata['show_admin_bar_front'];

  $meta['locale'] = isset( $userdata['locale'] ) ? $userdata['locale'] : '';

  $compacted = compact( 'user_pass', 'user_nicename', 'user_email', 'user_url', 'user_registered', 'user_activation_key', 'display_name' );
  $data      = wp_unslash( $compacted );

  if ( ! $update ) {
    $data = $data + compact( 'user_login' );
  }

  if ( is_multisite() ) {
    $data = $data + compact( 'spam' );
  }

  
/**
 * Filters user data before the record is created or updated.
 *
 * It only includes data in the users table, not any user metadata.
 *
 * @since 4.9.0
 * @since 5.8.0 The `$userdata` parameter was added.
 *
 * @param array    $data {
 *     Values and keys for the user.
 *
 *     @type string $user_login      The user's login. Only included if $update == false
 *     @type string $user_pass       The user's password.
 *     @type string $user_email      The user's email.
 *     @type string $user_url        The user's url.
 *     @type string $user_nicename   The user's nice name. Defaults to a URL-safe version of user's login
 *     @type string $display_name    The user's display name.
 *     @type string $user_registered MySQL timestamp describing the moment when the user registered. Defaults to
 *                                   the current UTC timestamp.
 * }
 * @param bool     $update   Whether the user is being updated rather than created.
 * @param int|null $user_id  ID of the user to be updated, or NULL if the user is being created.
 * @param array    $userdata The raw array of data passed to wp_insert_user().
 */
  $data = apply_filters( 'wp_pre_insert_user_data', $data, $update, ( $update ? $user_id : null ), $userdata );

  if ( empty( $data ) || ! is_array( $data ) ) {
    return new WP_Error( 'empty_data', __( 'Not enough data to create this user.' ) );
  }

  if ( $update ) {
    if ( $user_email !== $old_user_data->user_email || $user_pass !== $old_user_data->user_pass ) {
      $data['user_activation_key'] = '';
    }
    $wpdb->update( $wpdb->users, $data, array( 'ID' => $user_id ) );
  } else {
    $wpdb->insert( $wpdb->users, $data );
    $user_id = (int) $wpdb->insert_id;
  }

  $user = new WP_User( $user_id );

  
/**
 * Filters a user's meta values and keys immediately after the user is created or updated
 * and before any user meta is inserted or updated.
 *
 * Does not include contact methods. These are added using `wp_get_user_contact_methods( $user )`.
 *
 * For custom meta fields, see the {@see 'insert_custom_user_meta'} filter.
 *
 * @since 4.4.0
 * @since 5.8.0 The `$userdata` parameter was added.
 *
 * @param array $meta {
 *     Default meta values and keys for the user.
 *
 *     @type string   $nickname             The user's nickname. Default is the user's username.
 *     @type string   $first_name           The user's first name.
 *     @type string   $last_name            The user's last name.
 *     @type string   $description          The user's description.
 *     @type string   $rich_editing         Whether to enable the rich-editor for the user. Default 'true'.
 *     @type string   $syntax_highlighting  Whether to enable the rich code editor for the user. Default 'true'.
 *     @type string   $comment_shortcuts    Whether to enable keyboard shortcuts for the user. Default 'false'.
 *     @type string   $admin_color          The color scheme for a user's admin screen. Default 'fresh'.
 *     @type int|bool $use_ssl              Whether to force SSL on the user's admin area. 0|false if SSL
 *                                          is not forced.
 *     @type string   $show_admin_bar_front Whether to show the admin bar on the front end for the user.
 *                                          Default 'true'.
 *     @type string   $locale               User's locale. Default empty.
 * }
 * @param WP_User $user     User object.
 * @param bool    $update   Whether the user is being updated rather than created.
 * @param array   $userdata The raw array of data passed to wp_insert_user().
 */
  $meta = apply_filters( 'insert_user_meta', $meta, $user, $update, $userdata );

  $custom_meta = array();
  if ( array_key_exists( 'meta_input', $userdata ) && is_array( $userdata['meta_input'] ) && ! empty( $userdata['meta_input'] ) ) {
    $custom_meta = $userdata['meta_input'];
  }

  
/**
 * Filters a user's custom meta values and keys immediately after the user is created or updated
 * and before any user meta is inserted or updated.
 *
 * For non-custom meta fields, see the {@see 'insert_user_meta'} filter.
 *
 * @since 5.9.0
 *
 * @param array   $custom_meta Array of custom user meta values keyed by meta key.
 * @param WP_User $user        User object.
 * @param bool    $update      Whether the user is being updated rather than created.
 * @param array   $userdata    The raw array of data passed to wp_insert_user().
 */
  $custom_meta = apply_filters( 'insert_custom_user_meta', $custom_meta, $user, $update, $userdata );

  $meta = array_merge( $meta, $custom_meta );

  // Update user meta.
  foreach ( $meta as $key => $value ) {
    update_user_meta( $user_id, $key, $value );
  }

  foreach ( wp_get_user_contact_methods( $user ) as $key => $value ) {
    if ( isset( $userdata[ $key ] ) ) {
      update_user_meta( $user_id, $key, $userdata[ $key ] );
    }
  }

  if ( isset( $userdata['role'] ) ) {
    $user->set_role( $userdata['role'] );
  } elseif ( ! $update ) {
    $user->set_role( get_option( 'default_role' ) );
  }

  clean_user_cache( $user_id );

  if ( $update ) {
    
/**
 * Fires immediately after an existing user is updated.
 *
 * @since 2.0.0
 * @since 5.8.0 The `$userdata` parameter was added.
 *
 * @param int     $user_id       User ID.
 * @param WP_User $old_user_data Object containing user's data prior to update.
 * @param array   $userdata      The raw array of data passed to wp_insert_user().
 */
    do_action( 'profile_update', $user_id, $old_user_data, $userdata );

    if ( isset( $userdata['spam'] ) && $userdata['spam'] != $old_user_data->spam ) {
      if ( 1 == $userdata['spam'] ) {
        
/**
 * Fires after the user is marked as a SPAM user.
 *
 * @since 3.0.0
 *
 * @param int $user_id ID of the user marked as SPAM.
 */
        do_action( 'make_spam_user', $user_id );
      } else {
        
/**
 * Fires after the user is marked as a HAM user. Opposite of SPAM.
 *
 * @since 3.0.0
 *
 * @param int $user_id ID of the user marked as HAM.
 */
        do_action( 'make_ham_user', $user_id );
      }
    }
  } else {
    
/**
 * Fires immediately after a new user is registered.
 *
 * @since 1.5.0
 * @since 5.8.0 The `$userdata` parameter was added.
 *
 * @param int   $user_id  User ID.
 * @param array $userdata The raw array of data passed to wp_insert_user().
 */
    do_action( 'user_register', $user_id, $userdata );
  }

  return $user_id;
}